Conservation of Forest and Wildlife: National Park and Biosphere Reserves

We know that forests and trees are essential for our survival which makes it more crucial for us to focus on the Conservation of forest and wildlife.

Forests and trees are required:
• To maintain the balance of gases in the atmosphere.
• To reduce the pollution level on earth by reducing the level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.
• To maintain the temperature.
• To maintain the nutrients, content, and texture and improve the fertility of the soil.
• To maintain the level of groundwater.

Conservation of forest and wildlife: We should do all the efforts to conserve forests and wildlife
• The government lays down rules, methods, and policies to protect and conserve them.
• To protect our flora and fauna and their habitats, protected areas have been embarked like-

  1. Sanctuaries
  2. National parks
  3. Biosphere reserves

Sanctuaries are the areas where animals are protected from any danger to them and their habitat. National parks are the areas reserved for wildlife where they can freely use their habitats and natural resources. Biosphere reserves are large areas of protected land for the conservation of forest and wildlife.

Plant and animal resources and the traditional life of the tribes living in these areas are protected. Plantation, cultivation, grazing, cutting of trees, hunting, and poaching are strictly prohibited in these areas.

National Park

Smaller animals are much more in danger of extinction as compared to bigger animals. We kill snakes, frogs, lizards, bats, and owls ruthlessly without even realizing their importance in the ecosystem. In fact, by killing them we are harming ourselves.

We are disturbing the eco system by destroying forests and wildlife. Animals whose number has reduced to such a level that they might face extinction in future are known as Endangered animals.

Therefore, to protect our flora and fauna and their habitats, protected areas like national parks have been embarked.

National Parks are the areas reserved for wild life where they can freely use the habitats and natural resources.

These are large and diverse enough to protect whole set of eco systems.

Some Indian National parks and Projects are.

Anshi National ParkKarnataka
Balphakram National ParkMeghalaya
Bandhavgarh National ParkMadhya Pradesh
Corbett National ParkUttarakhand
Desert National ParkRajasthan
Eravikulam National ParkKerala
Gangotri National ParkUttarakhand
Gir National ParkGujarat
 Indravati National ParkChhattisgarh
 Kalesar National ParkHaryana
 Kaziranga National ParkAssam
 Khangchendzonga National ParkSikkim
 Manas National ParkAssam
 Mollem National ParkGoa
 Mudumalai National ParkTamil Nadu
 Nandankanan National ParkOrissa

Biosphere Reserve

The biosphere is that part of the earth, on which living organisms exist or which supports life. It is a combination of Lithosphere, Hydrosphere, and Atmosphere. To protect our biological diversity (flora and fauna), it is essential to protect our biosphere. So biosphere reserve is embarked.

Biosphere reserves are the large areas of protected land for the conservation of wildlife, plant and animal resources, and the traditional life of the tribal people living in these areas. Therefore Biosphere Reserves are used for the conservation of biodiversity. In biosphere reserves, one can easily appreciate the green wealth of the forests, tall trees, and animals.

Biosphere Reserves situated in India are:-

Rann of Kuchch/ gyan bharati ReserveGujarat
Gulf of MannarTamil Nadu
SunderbansWest Bengal
Nanda DeviUttarakhand
Nilgiri Biosphere ReserveTamil Nadu, Kerala, and Karnataka
Dehong DebandArunachal Pradesh
Pachmarhi Biosphere ReserveMadhya Pradesh
Achanakamar – AmarkantakMadhya Pradesh, Chattisgarh
Agasthyamalai Biosphere ReserveKerala
Great Nicobar Biosphere ReserveAndaman and Nicobar Islands
List of Biosphere Reserves

Wild Life Sanctuary

To protect our flora and fauna and their habitats, protected areas have been embarked by the govt. One of such protected area is wild life sanctuary. Wild life Sanctuary is an area where animals are protected from any disturbances to them and their habitat. It provides protection and suitable living conditions to wild animals. Here hunting and poaching is prohibited.

Our wildlife sanctuaries are unique landscapes, broad level forests, mountain forests and bush lands in deltas of big rivers.

They help us to conserve threatened wild animals. Some of the threatened animals are:-
Blackbuck, white-eyed buck, elephant, golden cat, pink-headed duck, python, rhinoceros, etc.
There are more than 551 wildlife sanctuaries in India.

StateWildlife Sanctuaries
Andhra PradeshSrisailam Sanctuary
GujaratSasangir Wildlife Sanctuary
HaryanaSultanpur Bird Sanctuary
KeralaIdukki Wildlife Sanctuary, Periyar Wildlife Sanctuary
KarnatakaB R Hills Wildlife Sanctuary, Dandeli Wildlife Sanctuary
Madhya PradeshKarera Wildlife Sanctuary
MaharashtraSanjay Gandhi Wildlife Sanctuary
OrissaChilka Lake Bird Sanctuary
RajasthanSambhar Wildlife Sanctuary
TamilnaduMudumalai Sanctuary
Uttar PradeshHastinapur Sanctuary, Kishanpur Sanctuary, National Chambal Sanctuary
UttarakhandAssan Barrage Bird Sanctuary
West BengalSatkosia Basipalli Sanctuary
List of some wildlife sanctuaries

Though the wildlife sanctuaries are protected areas sometimes their protected forests are not safe because people living in the neighborhood encroach upon them and destroy them.

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