Indian Agriculture: Types Of Farming: Primitive & Intensive Farming

India is an agriculturally important country. Two-thirds of its population is engaged in agricultural activities. Agriculture is a primary activity, which produces most of the food that we consume. Besides food grains, it also produces raw materials for various industries. Let us learn more about Indian Agriculture.

Types of Farming

Agriculture is an age-old economic activity in our country. Over these years, cultivation methods have changed significantly depending upon the characteristics of the physical environment, technological know-how, and socio-cultural practices. Farming varies from subsistence to commercial type. At present, in different parts of India, different farming systems are practiced.

Primitive Subsistence Farming

This type of farming is still practiced in few pockets of India. Primitive subsistence agriculture is practiced on small patches of land with the help of primitive tools like hoe, dao and digging sticks, and family/community labor. This type of farming depends upon monsoon, natural fertility of the soil, and suitability of other environmental conditions to the crops grown.

It is a ‘slash and burn agriculture. Farmers clear a patch of land and produce cereals and other food crops to sustain their families. When the soil fertility decreases, the farmers shift and clear a fresh patch of land for cultivation. This type of shifting allows Nature to replenish the fertility of the soil through natural processes; land productivity in this type of agriculture is low as the farmer does not use fertilizers or other modern inputs. It is known by different names in different parts of the country.

Intensive Subsistence Farming

This type of farming is practiced in areas of high population pressure on land. It is labor-intensive farming, where high doses of biochemical inputs and irrigation are used for obtaining higher production.

Commercial Farming

The main characteristic of this type of farming is the use of higher doses of modern inputs, e.g. high yielding variety (HYV) seeds, chemical fertilizers, insecticides, and pesticides in order to obtain higher productivity. The degree of commercialization of agriculture varies from one region to another. For example, rice is a commercial crop in Haryana and Punjab, but in Orissa, it is a subsistence crop. The plantation is also a type of commercial farming. In this type of farming, a single crop is grown in a large area. The plantation has an interface of agriculture and industry. Plantations cover large tracts of land, using capital-intensive inputs, with the help of migrant laborers. All the produce is used as
raw material in respective industries.

In India, tea, coffee, rubber, sugarcane, banana, etc.. are important plantation crops. Tea in Assam and North Bengal, coffee in Karnataka are some of the important plantation crops grown in these states. Karnataka is one of the important plantations crops grown in these states. Since the production is mainly for the market, a well-developed network of transport and communication connecting the plantation areas, processing industries, and markets play an important role in the development of plantations.

Read More: Land Resources: Land Use Pattern In India and Land Conservation Methods

Open chat