What is Environment? Components, Human and Natural Environment

The place, people, things, and nature that surround any living organism is called the environment. It is a combination of natural and human-made phenomena. While the natural environment refers to both biotic and abiotic conditions existing on the earth. The human environment reveals the activities, creations, and interactions among human beings.

Components of Environment

If we look at the environment, it is composed of three different components. A natural component like land, air, and biosphere; Human-made component like roads, bridges, industries, etc And finally human component consists of individual, family, society, etc… It is also called as human environment and it reveals the activities, creations, and interactions among human beings.

Natural Environment

Land, water, air, plants, and animals comprise the natural environment. In this module, Let us learn about the domains of the natural environment. Lithosphere. The lithosphere is the solid crust or the hard top layer of the earth. It is made up of rocks and minerals and covered by a thin layer of soil.

It is an irregular surface with various landforms such as mountains, plateaus, plains, valleys, etc. Landforms are found over the continents and also on the ocean floors. The lithosphere is the domain that provides us forests, grasslands for grazing, land for agriculture, and human settlements. It is also a source of mineral wealth


The domain of water is referred to as the hydrosphere. It comprises various sources of water and different types of water bodies like rivers, lakes, seas, oceans, etc. It is essential for all living organisms


The atmosphere is the thin layer of air that surrounds the earth. The gravitational force of the earth holds the atmosphere around it. It protects us from the harmful rays and scorching heat of the sun. It consists of a number of gases, dust, and water vapor. The changes in the atmosphere produce changes in the weather and climate


Plant and animal kingdoms together make the biosphere or the living world. It is a narrow zone of the earth where land, water, and air interact with each other to support life.


All plants, animals, and human beings depend on their immediate surroundings. Often they are also Interdependent on each other. This relation between the living organisms, as well as the relation between the organisms and their surroundings, forms an ecosystem. There could be an ecosystem of large rain forests, grassland, desert, mountains, lake, rivers, oceans, and even small ponds.

Human Environment

Human beings interact with the environment and modify it according to their need, this is what is called as human environment. Early humans adapted themselves to their natural surroundings. They led a simple life and fulfilled their requirements from the nature around them. With time needs grew and became more varied.

Humans learn new ways to use and change the environment. They learn to grow crops, domesticate animals and lead a settled life. The wheel was invented, surplus food was produced, the barter system emerged, trade started and commerce developed. The industrial revolution enabled large-scale production. Transportation became faster. Information revolution made communication easier and speedy across the world.

Read More: Human Environment- Settlement, Transport, and Communication

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