Cotton Textile Industry: Ahmedabad and Osaka – Industries Class 8

Weaving cloth from yarn is an ancient art. Cotton, wool, silk, jute, flax have been used for making cloth. The textile industry can be divided on the basis of raw materials used in them. Fibers are the raw material of the textile industry. Fibers can be natural or man-made. Natural fibers are obtained from wool, silk, cotton, linen, and jute. Man-made fibers include nylon, polyester, acrylic, and rayon. The cotton textile industry is one of the oldest industries in the world.

Till the industrial revolution in the 18th century, cotton cloth was made using hand-spinning techniques (wheels) and looms. In the 18th century power looms facilitated the development of the cotton textile industry, first in Great Britain and later in other parts of the world. Today India, China, Japan, and the USA are the important producers of cotton textiles. India has a glorious tradition of producing good-quality cotton textiles.

Before the British rule, Indian handspun and handwoven cloth already had a wide market. The Muslins of Dhaka, Chintzes of Masulipatnam, Calicos of Calicut, and Gold-wrought cotton pieces of Burhanpur, Surat, and Vadodara were known worldwide for their quality and design. But the production of hand-woven cotton textile was expensive and time-consuming.

Hence, the traditional cotton textile industry could not face competition from the new textile mills of the West, which produced cheap and good-quality fabrics. The first successful modern textile mill was established in Mumbai in 1854.

The warm, moist climate, port for importing machinery, availability of raw material, and skilled labor resulted in the rapid expansion of the industry in the region. Initially, this industry flourished in the states of Maharashtra and Gujarat because of the favorable humid climate.

But today, humidity can be created artificially, and raw cotton is a pure and not weight losing raw material, so this industry has spread to other parts of India. Coimbatore, Kanpur, Chennai, Ahmedabad, Mumbai, Kolkata, Ludhiana, Pondicherry, and Panipat are some of the other important centers.

Ahmedabad: It is located in Gujarat on the banks of the Sabarmati river. The first mill was established in 1859. It soon became the second-largest textile city of India, after Mumbai.

Ahmedabad is often referred to as the ‘Manchester of India’. Favorable locational factors were responsible for the development of the textile industry in Ahmedabad. Ahmedabad is situated in the heart of a cotton-growing area. This ensures easy availability of raw material. The humid climate is ideal for spinning and weaving.

The flat terrain and easy availability of land are suitable for the establishment of the mills. The densely populated states of Gujarat and Maharashtra provide both skilled and semi-skilled labor. Well-developed road and railway networks permit easy transportation of textiles to different parts of the country, thus providing easy access to the market. Mumbai port nearby facilitates the import of machinery and the export of cotton textiles.

But in recent years, Ahmedabad textile mills have been having some problems. Several textile mills have closed down. This is primarily due to the emergence of new textile centers in the country as well as the non-up-gradation of machines and technology in the mills of Ahmedabad.

Osaka: It is an important textile center of Japan, also known as the ‘Manchester of Japan’. The textile industry developed in Osaka due to several geographical factors. The extensive plain around Osaka ensured that land was easily available for the growth of cotton mills. A warm humid climate is well suited to spinning and weaving. The river Yodo provides sufficient water for the mills. Labour is easily available. Location of port facilitates import of raw cotton and for exporting textiles.

The textile industry in Osaka depends completely upon imported raw materials. Cotton is imported from Egypt, India, China, and the USA. The finished product is mostly exported and has a good market due to good quality and low price. Though it is one of the important textile cities in the country, of late, the cotton textile industry of Osaka has been replaced by other industries, such as iron and steel, machinery, shipbuilding, automobiles, electrical equipment, and cement.

Read More: Classification Of Industries- Industrial System and Industrial Regions – Class 8

Open chat